STUDYING THE OKTOECHOS: FROM THE OKTOECHOS TO THE ANASTASIMATARION*
*Paper read at the XX International Byzantine Congress, Paris, 19-25 August, 2001.
Key words: Medieval Music, Byzanthine Music, Orthodox Music, Sticherarion, Anastasimatarion, Sources, Notations, Sinai Manuscripts, John Koukouzeles, Stichera, Resurrection Services
The object of the present contribution is an examination of the changes of the contents and repertory of the Oktoechos as a chapter of the Sticherarion that led to the formation of the Anastasimatarion in Greek or Bîñêðåñíèê in Slavic. Though we all know that the Anastasimatarion includes a repertory for the resurrection services for Saturday Vespers (StV) and the Sunday Orthros (SnO), the problem of how these services were formed and established in the neumated sources has not been at the center of scholarly attention. However, the few studies by D. Stefanovic, C. Hannick, D. Petrovic, A. Sirli, J. Raasted, etc., dealing with topics related to the Anastasimatarion, give important clues in this direction. Allow me to mention some of them.
D. Stefanovic, studying the Yale fragment found by M. Velimirovic, posed the questions of what is the Anastasimatarion, what was its order, who was its author, etc.1 He considered the formation of the Anastasimatarion within the Sticherarion. Stefanovic assumed that the order of the “old” Anastasimatarion was established in the 14th century when the complete set of hymns for StV was accomplished with the inclusion of the three stichera anastasima and the apostichon2. Unfortunately, he did not discuss the repertory of the Oktoechos for Sunday.
A. Sirli devoted a book to the Anastasimatarion3. She considered its formation within the Sticherarion as well. Sirli cited two Sticheraria pointed out by G. Stathis as containing the earliest “complete Anastasimatarion without kekragaria and pasapnoaria”: Dionisiou 564 from 1445 and Panteleimonos 936 from the late 15th or early 16th century4. She suggested carefully that the structure of the contents and repertory of the Anastasimatarion was probably completed while the stichera anastasima were transmitted from the Sticherarion into the Akolouthiai-Anthology and the kekragaria, dogmatika and pasapnoaria were added to them. According to her, the earliest Anastasimataria as a distinct type of chant book for singers go back to the second half of the 16th and the first half of the 17th century and as a rule are included in the Anthologies5.
The last publications of J. Raasted also contain valuable observations on the posed topic6. Though he did not mention the Anastasimatarion specifically, the accent of his investigations was put on the changes in the contents and repertory of the Oktoechos within the Sticherarion7. Raasted considered these changes as a “revision” of Joannes Koukouzeles8. He distinguished the Oktoechos from the time of Koukouzeles, which, according to him, was cyclically (liturgically) arranged from that of the previous time, which followed the systematic (genre) order9.
It is clear that the Anastasimatarion appeared as a result of certain changes in the contents and repertory of the Oktoechos or, in other words, the Anastasimatarion represents a remodeled and changed order of the contents and repertory of the latter. It is insufficiently clear, however, what part of it has been changed exactly, that is, removed, added or dropped out and how it has been transmitted. This will be on the focus of the present contribution.
To determine the changes in the Oktoechos, I took for investigation sources from the 12th through the beginning of the 19th century (up to the New Method established after 1814) that are mainly preserved in four libraries: the library of the Ecclesiastical Historical and Archival Institute of the Patriarchate of Bulgaria (EHAI), the library of the “Ivan Dujchev” Center for Slavo-Byzantine Studies at the State University in Sofia “St. Clement of Okhrid” (CSBS), the library of St. Catherine’s Monastery on Mount Sinai (S), and the library of Hilandar Monastery (H) on Mount Athos. The sources from the last two libraries I consulted on microfilms, respectively, at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Resource Center for Medieval Slavic Studies at the Ohio State University. I chose Sticheraria in middle Byzantine notation for the period up to the 15th century belonging to the “standard abridged version” (SAV) which, as it is known according to Oliver Strunk, appeared after 105010. Some of the preliminary results of my investigation on these Sticheraria, I announced at the meetings held in 2000 - the Cantus Planus meeting in Visegrad and at the Musica Antiqua Europae Orientalis in Bydgoszcz11. The study of the sources further clearly revealed that the formation of the Anastasimatarion, as a changed order of the contents and repertory of the Oktoechos, is the result of a long process. Also, the study of the sources confirmed Sirli’s conclusion that the formation of the Anastasiatarion started in the Sticherarion, and then was transmitted into the Anthology where it attained its final form. I have defined four stages in this process. Here I shall present the most characteristic picture of them as they became evident in the majority of the sources from the four abovementioned collections. The exceptions will be the aim of another study.
What are the four stages and what allows us to speak of the Anastasimatarion, or better yet, of the Oktoechos-Anastasimatarion?
The first stage is revealed in the Oktoechos in the majority of the early Sticheraria from the 12th and 13th centuries. The contents and repertory of this Oktoechos transmit a systematic (genre) order. The stichera are separate collections running through the eight modes any time: 88 anatolika for StV, SnO, and SnV - 24 alphabetika for StV - 8 theotokia stichera for StV - anabathmoi for SnO - theotokia dogmatika for StV and staurotheotokia for Wednesdays and Fridays in Lent. The 11 eothina for SnO and prosomoia for Great Lent are written in different places before or after these cycles. Some sources also insert theotokia prosomoia at the end. This order is in all of the consulted 13th-century Sticheraria from the EHAI (812, 813, 815, and 818), in S. 1231 from 1236, S. 1472 from 1276, and the 14th-century S. 1585 and Dujchev D.gr.188.
The second stage is revealed in the Oktoechos of some of the 13th- and in all of the 14th-century Sticheraria. The contents and repertory of the Oktoechos in these Sticheraria transmit a cyclic (liturgical) order, that is, the collections of stichera run through the modes only once. The liturgical succession of chants in each mode is evident (mode 1): StV - 4 anatolika - 3 alphabetika - theotokion sticheron; SnO - anabathmoi - 4 anatolika; SnV - 3 anatolika; the theotokia dogmatika and staurotheotokia follow these cycles. Also, the eothina and theotokia prosomoia are included. The cycle of the Lenten prosomoia, however, is removed. It is put to its proper place: in the Triodion, after Ceesefare Sunday. This order is displayed in the 13th-century MSS S. 1220, 1484 and in the 14th-century MSS S. 1221 from 1321, 1464 from 1323, 1223, Dujchev D.gr.49, etc.
The third stage is revealed in four of the consulted sources, all of the 14th century: Ambrosiana 139 from 1341 and Sinai MSS 1230 from 1365, 1228, and 1471. The cyclic order is preserved. The distinctive feature of this stage is the inclusion of sets of resurrection hymns, some of which were neumated for the first time. Such are the stichera anastasima for StV and SnO and the aposticha for StV. The four sources differ in terms of the inclusion of the new neumated cycles. All of them, for instance, contain the stichera anastasima for StV for the first time. All of them also contain the so-called ordinary dogmatika: the inclusion of the latter in some sources from the previous two stages was sporadic. The aposticha are missing in S. 1230. The anastasima for the SnO are included in S. 1228 and 1471. The complete order of the contents and repertory of the Oktoechos from this stage is (S. 1471, f. 299r-303v, mode 1): StV - 3 anastasima - 4 anatolika - ordinary dogmatikon - apostichon - 3 alphabetika - theotokion; SnO - anabathmoi - 4 anastasima - 4 anatolika; SnV - 3 anatolika; the theotokia dogmatika and staurotheotokia follow the latter. The eothina are included in all of the sources. The theotokia prosomoia appear in two of them: Ambrosiana139 and Sinai 1230.
The most interesting among the cited four MSS is S. 1228. As I announced in my former papers, there is a polychronion on its last pages (starting on f. 286v) written by Joannes Lampadarios [Kladas], in which the name of Neilus, patriarch of Constantinople is read: “t o u a g i w p a t r i a r c [ ] k w n s t a n t i n [ ] k u r n e i l o u . m e l o V d e k u r i w a n [ ] t o u l a m p a d a r i o u ”. This must be Neilus Kerameus, who ruled from March-April 1380 to February 1, 1388. If this identification is correct, S. 1228 might have been written within this time period. In addition to the above repertory, this MS contains four cycles of katabasia which are written down after the staurotheotokia. To my knowledge, this is the first inclusion of katabasia in the Oktoechos as a chapter of the Sticherarion12. The katabasia, which show the liturgical place of the kanon as it was compiled in the morning service in the Oktoechos, deserve special attention. Here I shall say in advance that the first three cycles in mode 1 have the following designation: “T h k u r [ i a k h ] p r w i k a t a b a s i a ”, “e t e r a k a t a b a s i a ”, and “e i V t o n a g i o n n i k o l a o ” (December 6). The fourth cycle does not have a designation. According to Hirmologia published in MMB, the odes of the cycle are identified as ”a n a s t a s i m a ”13. Because of the second ode included in it, the cycle might have been designed for the resurrection days during Great Lent.
The katabasia are followed by makarismoi, the movable chants for the liturgy for Sunday (the incipt for the 1st mode is: “D i a b r w s e w V e x h g a g e ”). Again to my knowledge, this is the first inclusion of the resurrectional makarismoi in the Oktoechos of this MS. It should be stressed further that the three anatolika stichera for SnV are not included.
The last and fourth stage is revealed in some 15th-century sources of the new compiled type: the kalophonic Sticherarion and the Anthology. There are only two MSS of the type of the “standard abridged version” of the Sticherarion from the 15th century in the consulted MS collections: S. 1245 and 1564. Both of them, however, preserve the old tradition of the systematic order of the Oktoechos14. In this respect, their compilation goes back at least to the 13th century.
Of all the consulted kalophonic Sticheraria from the 15th century (no kalophonic Sticherarion from the 14th century is known) only S. 1255 includes an Oktoechos repertory (I have in mind S. 1234, 1250, 1251, 1584, etc.). The repertory of the Oktoechos in S. 1255, which starts on f. 164r, is described by Annette Jung in detail15. For the first time this repertory combines the evening psalm 140 for StV with the appropriate stichera anastasima. The same combination for the ordinary resurrection psalms for StV and for SnO with their stichera is revealed in two Anthologies from the 15th century: S. MSS 1463 and 155216. The two MSS are very close in terms of the contents and repertory of their Oktoechos. In both of them the latter is included after chants for Vespers (in S. 1552 after “chanted” Vespers of the “cathedral” ordo17). The combination of the ordinary evening and morning psalms for StV and SnO with the appropriate stichera anastasima is the most distinctive feature of the fourth stage in the changes of the Oktoechos. It has the following order (S. 1463, f. 80v-112r, S. 1552, f. 77r-122r, mode 1): StV - psalm 140.1,2 K u r i e e k e k r a x a - 3 anastasima - 4 anatolika - ordinary dogmatikon in two versions (the second is with a terirem and is designated as “e t e r a t e t r a j w n o V ”) - apostichon - 3 alphabetika - theotokion; SnO - the resurrection psalm 127.27a, 26a Q e o V K u r i o V in two versions (lengthier and shorter) - anastasimon troparion (apolitikion) - alleluia with triadikon for Quadragesima - [in S. 1552 only: anabathmoi - polyeleos, antiphon, and prokeimenon after the 6th ode of the kanon] - melismatic author’s versions of P a s a p n o h for the liturgy - psalm 50.3 after the Gospel - exapostelarion - [in S. 1463: prokeimenon] - the ordinary psalms 150.6 and 148.1 P a s a p n o h and A i n e i t e - 4 anastasima - 4 anatolika - eothina - Great doxology and the makarismos, which is followed by the liturgy.
The two S. MSS are the only examples of all the consulted 15th-century sources that contain a full neumated Oktoechos’ repertory combining the resurrection psalms with the appropriate stichera. The MSS consulted from the 16th century do not contain such a repertory. The subsequent sources consulted - from the 17th century onwards - include a concise Oktoechos repertory, especially in terms of the SnO. It is the following (S. 1301, f. 10r, mode 1): StV - psalm 140.1,2 - 3 anastasima - 4 anatolika - ordinary dogmatikon - apostichon - 3 alphabetika - theotokion; SnO - Pasa pnoe - Aineite - 4 anastasima - 4 anatolika - makarismos. The repertory of the Anthology follows after the 4th pl. mode. This concise order is also revealed in Sinai 1302 to 1304 and 1326, Dujchev D.gr.61 and 115, Hilandar GMS 39, etc.18 In S. 1301 and H. GMS 39 it is ascribed to “C r i s a j o u t o u n a i o u ”, that is, Chrysaphes the New. The rubric in S. 1304 specifies: “The beginning of stichera anastasima as they are sung in the imperial city” (”…e n b a s i l e u o n p o l e w n ”), that is, Constantinople. The order of this repertory is extremely stable. In all probability, it was established by Chrysaphes the New. Only the place of psalm 140 is variable: it is written either at the beginning of this repertory or in the Anthology. In the majority of the sources this repertory is put at the beginning of the volume and is followed by the repertory of the Anthology. It is this Oktoechos repertory that appears also in a separate book from the second half of the 17th century19. It became widespread and it is this one that is often labeled in the rubrics “the Anastasimatarion”. Having been compiled along with the repertory of the Anthology, it represents the book of the Anastasimatarion-Anthology. One reads, for instance, in MS Xiropotamos 266 from the end of the 17th - the beginning of the 18th century, defined as an Anastasimatarion-Anthology by G. Stathis (f.9r)20: “A r c h s u n Q e w a g i w t w n o k t w k e k r a g a r i w n m e t a t w n d o g m a t i k w n o k t w t o u A n a s t a s i m a t a r i o u ”. In comparison with the Oktoechos from the previous third stage, the Anastasimatarion does not include the anatolika for SnV, anabathmoi, theotokia dogmatika, staurotheotokia, and theotokia prosomoia. The questions of why these cycles were excluded from its neumated contents after the 15th century and where and how they were transmitted, are beyond the scope of this study. Also, beyond its aim are the questions of the role of Chrysaphes the New and Peter Lampadarios in the development of the Oktoechos-Anastasimatarion and the appearance of the “a r g o n ” and the “s u n t o m o n ” Anastasimatarion by the beginning of the 19th century. What we should stress here is that, according to the considered sources, the lack of the cycles indicated, the combination of the resurrection psalms with the appropriate stichera for StV - SnO, and the inclusion of the makarismoi are the landmarks of the Anastasimatarion up to the 19th century. These landmarks differentiate the Oktoechos’ repertory within the “classical” Sticherarion from that one which is outside of it.
The forerunner of the Anastasimatarion is maybe best presented in S. 1228. The latter contains the full order of the stichera anastasima for StV - SnO, excluding the 3 anatolika for SnV and including the makarismoi for the first time among the consulted sources. A similar order is revealed in the Slavic MS S. 19, an unneumated Oktoechos of the 14th century, which is called in an inscription on f. 217r “íîâ w õòw èõ” (a “new Oktoechos”). According to J. Raasted’s observations, the reformative work of Joannes Koukouzeles led to the changes in the Oktoechos. Hence, in the light of the recent research, we may conclude that in the 14th century Koukouzeles had established the new order of the cyclic Oktoechos within the Sticherarion in which special attention was paid to stichera anastasima (Koukouzeles actually may have been the leading figure in this process). In the 15th century, these stichera were combined with the appropriate evening and morning psalms. In doing so, the Anastasimatarion was formed. Thus, the earliest full neumated examples of the Anastasimatarion containing the ordinary resurrection psalms and the appropriate stichera, dogmatika, and makarismoi could be found already in the 15th century. They are well presented in S. MSS 1463 and 155221.
The Hilandar MSS from the end of the 18th and/or the very beginning of the 19th century deserve special attention22. These MSS give an important picture for the development of the Balkan musical culture as a whole23. D. Stefanovic considers two of them as containing an Anastasimatarion in Slavic, that is, Bîñêðåñíèê: HM SMS 309 and 31124. H. 668 should be added to the list. The order of the Slavic Voskresnik in the three MSS is the same as the one presented above. Only the makarismoi/áëàæåíè are not included. Psalm 140 is put either at the beginning of the MS (in 309) or in the Anthology (in 311 and 668). The compilation of the Hilandar MSS remains a rare example in placing the Anastasimatarion before the Menaion as a chapter of Sticherarion25. Of H. 309 and 311, the latter contains only the festal Menaion. H. 668 contains a Menaion, Triodion, and Pentecostarion. Actually, not one of the Sticheraria consulted from the post-Byzantine period contains an Oktoechos as a last chapter of its volume (it is well known that the Oktoechos in the “classical” Sticherarion follows the office for Sunday of All Saints). This might be one of the distinctive features of the post-Byzantine Sticherarion, at least up to the beginning of the 19th century. The Hilandar MSS, having placed the Anastasimaarion’s repertory before that of the Menaion, actually prove the independent transmission of this repertory and its separation from the “classical” neumated body of the Sticherarion.
In conclusion, I would like to stress that the observations in this study, more or less, are based on a limited number of sources. The involvement of many other sources could prove or contest some of my conclusions. This would be quite natural. I am also aware that many interesting questions, and primarily, questions related to MSS and intrinsic music in them, remain to be researched. The hope is that the topic discussed will provoke another study.